Facial Anthropometry Measurements Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry Analysis Among Nigerians

Adegbayi Adeola Adekunle (Lead / Corresponding author), Abiodun Yusuff Olowo, Olutayo James, Olawale Olatubosun Adamson, Azeez A. Alade, Failat Olushola Agbogidi, Afisu O. Oladega, Mobolanle Olugbemiga Ogunlewe, Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Tamara D. Busch, Peter A. Mossey, Mary L. Marazita, Azeez Butali

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This study aimed to determine the normative facial anthropometry measurement among Nigerians using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry analysis.

This study was carried out in Lagos, Nigeria over a period of 3 years. The sample population was Nigerians of diverse ethnic groups, age 16 and above with no history of congenital or acquired craniofacial deformities.

A total of 452 subjects participated in the study with 56.2% males and 43.8% females. Most of the participants were between the ages of 25 to 49 (54.4%), 40.7% were less than 25 years of age and only 4.4% were more than 50 years old. The mean body mass index (BMI) for males was 22.7 and 23.4 for females. Mean values of upper facial height, midfacial height, lower facial height, intercanthal distance, interpupillary distance, upper facial width, and lower facial width are 69.13 ± 5.91, 49.89 ± 3.56, 67.85 ± 6.12, 35.19 ± 3.20, 67.04 ± 3.67, 139.43 ± 7.11, and 124.29 ± 9.72 mm, respectively. The upper facial height, commissure width, upper lip length, and lower jaw width were significantly affected by age, while the BMI of an individual was a determinant of the interpupillary distance, facial width, and lower jaw width.

This study demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference in the facial dimensions of males when compared to females across all ages among the study population. The authors also observed that age and BMI are significant predictors of variations in some of the measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1178-1181
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number4
Early online date23 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • 3D Stereophotogrammetry
  • BMI
  • facial anthropometry


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