Facial attractiveness is related to women's cortisol and body fat, but not with immune responsiveness

Markus J. Rantala, Vinet Coetzee, Fhionna R. Moore, Ilona Skrinda, Sanita Kecko, Tatjana Krama, Inese Kivleniece, Indrikis Krams

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    45 Citations (Scopus)


    Recent studies suggest that facial attractiveness indicates immune responsiveness in men and that this relationship is moderated by stress hormones which interact with testosterone levels. However, studies testing whether facial attractiveness in women signals their immune responsiveness are lacking. Here, we photographed young Latvian women, vaccinated them against hepatitis B and measured the amount of specific antibodies produced, cortisol levels and percentage body fat. Latvian men rated the attractiveness of the women's faces. Interestingly, in women, immune responsiveness (amount of antibodies produced) did not predict facial attractiveness. Instead, plasma cortisol level was negatively associated with attractiveness, indicating that stressed women look less attractive. Fat percentage was curvilinearly associated with facial attractiveness, indicating that being too thin or too fat reduces attractiveness. Our study suggests that in contrast to men, facial attractiveness in women does not indicate immune responsiveness against hepatitis B, but is associated with two other aspects of long-term health and fertility: circulating levels of the stress hormone cortisol and percentage body fat.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number20130255
    Number of pages4
    JournalBiology Letters
    Issue number4
    Early online date22 May 2013
    Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2013


    • beauty
    • cortisol
    • humans
    • immune
    • mate choice
    • sexual selection
    • STRESS
    • HEALTH
    • BEAUTY
    • FACES
    • MEN


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