Fluoride content of ready-to-feed (RTF) infant food and drinks in the UK

A Maguire (Lead / Corresponding author), N Omid, L Abuhaloob, PJ Moynihan, FV Zohoori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The level of Fluoride exposure needed to cause dental fluorosis is not known precisely. An awareness of total F intake from all sources, especially during the critical stages of dental development during infancy and early childhood, is important in preventing the development of dental fluorosis. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure F content of ready-to-feed (RTF) infant drinks and foods in the UK. Methods: In total, 122 infant foods were analysed for F concentrations, in triplicate, indirectly by an acid diffusion method and 25 infant drinks analysed directly using an F-ion-selective electrode after addition of TISABIII. Results: The median (range) F concentration was 0.110 (0.030-0.221) μg/g for breakfast cereals, 0.112 (0.040-1.200) μg/g for savoury meals, 0.056 (0.030-0.379) μg/g for desserts, 0.044 (0.020-0.191) μg/g for fruits, 0.196 (0.040-0.397) μg/g for baked goods, 0.069 (0.050-0.148) μg/ml for juices, 0.016 (0.009-0.030) μg/ml for milks and 0.041 (0.022-0.069) μg/ml for waters. The median (range) F concentration of all RTF infant foods and drinks by recommended age of consumption was 0.029 (0.010-0.245), 0.088 (0.020-0.500), 0.108 (0.100-0.510) and 0.108 (0.060-1.200) μg/g for infants from birth, 4+ month, 6+ month and 10+ month, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that the F concentrations of UK-marketed RTF infant foods, drinks and formula milk are not sufficiently high to be a risk factor for dental fluorosis, if consumption is within the limits recommended for infants and young children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-36
Number of pages11
JournalCommunity Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012


  • diet
  • fluoride
  • infants
  • ready-to-feed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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