Force, rate and work used during incisor penetration on different textural foods

Xianzhong Xu, Paul S. Wright, Mark P. Hector, M. Robin Heath, Antony M. Ferman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    12 Citations (Scopus)


    Experiments have been performed to study the biting force, rate of penetration and hence, energy expenditure during first-bite incision of a variety of foodstuffs (cheese, apple, carrot and Hula Hoops). Biting forces were measured using a gauged cantilever beam mounted in an acrylic denture, and jaw movement was measured using a Sirognathograph system. The biting work, biting force rate and tooth velocity were calculated and analyzed in terms of those original measurements of biting force and tooth displacement. The results show that the maximum biting force, the maximum penetration rate and the total work used during incisor penetration were strongly dependent on the food texture (both size and mechanical properties). The effects of the food properties and sample size on those biting variables mentioned above are related to the stress-strain behaviors (including the viscoelasticity) of foods tested and the chewing pattern "matching" mechanism.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)115-128
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Texture Studies
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2008


    • Biting force
    • Biting work
    • Food texture
    • Penetration rate


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