Formation and deformation of basal ice

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Basal ice may be formed and deformed by a range of processes, the operation of which varies over time and space dependent upon local environmental conditions. Thus, there is usually complexity in basal ice sequences at point locations, and across entire glacier margins. Study of basal ice characteristics can be used to infer Subglacial Processes (qv) and conditions, which in turn play a major role in controlling ice dynamical behavior. The fact that new mechanisms of basal ice formation continue to be identified from analysis of basal ice cores and sections (e.g., Christoffersen and Tulaczyk, 2003) suggests that there is much yet to learn about the controls on ice mass behavior, and how such controls may vary over time and space.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)297-300
Number of pages4
JournalEncyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series
VolumePart 3
Publication statusPublished - 26 Aug 2014

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