Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon

C. S. Lau, A. B. Bridges, N. Scott, A. Bancroft, J. J. F. Belch

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    42 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.

    Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.

    In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.

    Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.

    In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.

    Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.

    In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP alone as well as those with SSc associated RS. Such abnormal PMN function may be related to digital vasospasm and not the underlying connective tissue disease. However, no correlation between PMN activity and Raynaud's severity was found. A follow-up study is being planned.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)375-380
    Number of pages6
    JournalRheumatology
    Volume31
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 1992

    Fingerprint

    Raynaud Disease
    Systemic Scleroderma
    Malondialdehyde
    Nonparametric Statistics
    Connective Tissue Diseases
    Vascular Diseases
    Free Radicals
    Volunteers
    Reactive Oxygen Species
    Enzymes

    Keywords

    • Raynaud's syndrome
    • Systemic sclerosis
    • Polymorphonuclear cell aggregation
    • Free radicals

    Cite this

    Lau, C. S. ; Bridges, A. B. ; Scott, N. ; Bancroft, A. ; Belch, J. J. F. / Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. In: Rheumatology. 1992 ; Vol. 31, No. 6. pp. 375-380.
    @article{828f70d73daa4a74bc3c6a1a38319db8,
    title = "Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon",
    abstract = "The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56){\%} versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1){\%} versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56){\%} versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1){\%} versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56){\%} versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1){\%} versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP alone as well as those with SSc associated RS. Such abnormal PMN function may be related to digital vasospasm and not the underlying connective tissue disease. However, no correlation between PMN activity and Raynaud's severity was found. A follow-up study is being planned.",
    keywords = "Raynaud's syndrome, Systemic sclerosis, Polymorphonuclear cell aggregation, Free radicals",
    author = "Lau, {C. S.} and Bridges, {A. B.} and N. Scott and A. Bancroft and Belch, {J. J. F.}",
    year = "1992",
    month = "6",
    doi = "10.1093/rheumatology/31.6.375",
    language = "English",
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    pages = "375--380",
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    }

    Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. / Lau, C. S.; Bridges, A. B.; Scott, N.; Bancroft, A.; Belch, J. J. F.

    In: Rheumatology, Vol. 31, No. 6, 06.1992, p. 375-380.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Further evidence of increased polymorphonuclear cell activity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon

    AU - Lau, C. S.

    AU - Bridges, A. B.

    AU - Scott, N.

    AU - Bancroft, A.

    AU - Belch, J. J. F.

    PY - 1992/6

    Y1 - 1992/6

    N2 - The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP alone as well as those with SSc associated RS. Such abnormal PMN function may be related to digital vasospasm and not the underlying connective tissue disease. However, no correlation between PMN activity and Raynaud's severity was found. A follow-up study is being planned.

    AB - The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP The role of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the pathophysiology of ischaemic vascular disease has been increasingly recognized in recent years. Activated PMNs may physically obstruct blood flow. Subsequent release of reactive oxygen radicals and lytic enzymes lead to continued damage. Previous studies have shown increased white cell activity in patients with secondary Raynaud's syndrome (RS). However, whether this is related to the underlying condition or to digital vasospasm is not clear. Using a more physiological whole blood PMN aggregation assay, we assessed PMN activity in 38 patients with severe Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) [16 had systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary RS; 22 had RP alone and no other features of a connective tissue disease]. Additionally, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of free radical activity, were measured. Results were compared with those obtained from 56 matched volunteers. In order to assess if changes in PMN activity was directly related to digital vasospasm, patients were asked to record the duration and frequency of their Raynaud's attacks during a 2-week period using a pocket sized diary. Correlation between these clinical variables of Raynaud's severity and white cell activity was assessed.Patients with RP both with and without SSc, showed a significantly greater fall in single PMN count when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 48.2 (41.4–56)% versus control, P = 0.04; RP alone 49.3 (46.8–52.1)% versus control, P = 0.01 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. MDA levels were significantly higher in both groups of patients when compared with control subjects [SSc associated RS 8.35 (7.35–9.6) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.000006; RP alone 7.5 (6.4–8.8) µmol/1 versus control, P = 0.003 (Mann-Whitney U-test)]. There were no significant differences in PMN aggregation and MDA levels between the two groups of patients. There were no significant correlations between PMN aggregation and MDA levels and duration and frequency of Raynaud's attacks in either group of patients.In conclusion, we have shown increased PMN activity in patients with RP alone as well as those with SSc associated RS. Such abnormal PMN function may be related to digital vasospasm and not the underlying connective tissue disease. However, no correlation between PMN activity and Raynaud's severity was found. A follow-up study is being planned.

    KW - Raynaud's syndrome

    KW - Systemic sclerosis

    KW - Polymorphonuclear cell aggregation

    KW - Free radicals

    U2 - 10.1093/rheumatology/31.6.375

    DO - 10.1093/rheumatology/31.6.375

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 1596699

    VL - 31

    SP - 375

    EP - 380

    JO - Rheumatology

    JF - Rheumatology

    SN - 1462-0324

    IS - 6

    ER -