Gene stacking in transgenic plants - the challenge for 21st century plant biotechnology

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    336 Citations (Scopus)


    One of the major technical hurdles impeding the advance of plant genetic engineering and biotechnology is the fact that the expression or manipulation of multiple genes in plants is still difficult to achieve. Although a small proportion of commercial genetically modified (GM) crops present 'stacked' or 'pyramided' traits, only a handful of products have been developed by introducing three or more novel genes. On the research front, a variety of conventional and more novel methods have been employed to introduce multiple genes into plants, but all techniques suffer from certain drawbacks. In this review, the potential and problems of these various techniques and strategies are discussed, and the prospects for improving these technologies in the future are presented.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)141-155
    Number of pages15
    JournalPlant Biotechnology Journal
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005


    • Chloroplast transformation
    • Co-transformation
    • Linked transgenes
    • Marker gene excision
    • Metabolic engineering
    • Multigene manipulation
    • Polyproteins
    • Pyramiding
    • Retransformation
    • Stacking

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Biotechnology
    • Agronomy and Crop Science
    • Plant Science


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