Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously does not affect its agronomical fitness. This translocation has been characterized by a combination of cytological and molecular genetic approaches. Firstly, recombination frequencies between markers on chromosomes 1H and 3H were estimated to determine the boundaries of the reciprocal interchange. Secondly, 1H-3H wheat barley telosome addition lines were used to assign selected markers to chromosome arms. Thirdly, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probes (5S and 18S-5.8S-26S) and microsatellite probes [(ACT)(5), (AAG)(5) and (CAG)(5)] was used to determine the locations of the translocation breakpoints more precisely. Fourthly, fine-mapping of the regions around the translocation breakpoints was used to increase the marker density for comparative genomics. The results obtained in this study indicate that the translocation is quite large with breakpoints located on the long arms of chromosomes 1H and 3H, between the pericentromeric (AAG)(5) bands and above the (ACT)(5) interstitial distal bands, resulting in the reciprocal translocation 1HS.1HL-3HL and 3HS.3HL-1HL. The gene content around the translocation breakpoints could be inferred from syntenic relationships observed among different species from the grass family Poaceae (rice, Sorghum and Brachypodium) and was estimated at approximately 1,100 and 710 gene models for 1H and 3H, respectively. Duplicated segments between chromosomes Os01 and Os05 in rice derived from ancestral duplications within the grass family overlap with the translocation breakpoints on chromosomes 1H and 3H in the barley variety Albacete.