Since the early 20th century, barley (Hordeum vulgare) has been a model for investigating the effects of physical and chemical mutagens and for exploring the potential of mutation breeding in crop improvement. As a consequence, extensive and wellcharacterized collections of morphological and developmental mutants have been assembled that represent a valuable resource for exploring a wide range of complex and fundamental biological processes. We constructed a collection of 881 backcrossed lines containing mutant alleles that induce a majority of the morphological and developmental variation described in this species. After genotyping these lines with up to 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms, comparison to their recurrent parent defined the genetic location of 426 mutant alleles to chromosomal segments, each representing on average <3% of the barley genetic map. We show how the gene content in these segments can be predicted through conservation of synteny with model cereal genomes, providing a route to rapid gene identification.