Genotypic and Phenotypic Structure of the Population of Phytophthora infestans in Egypt Revealed the Presence of European Genotypes

Sherif Mohamed El-Ganainy (Lead / Corresponding author), Zafar Iqbal, Hossam Mohamed Awad, Muhammad Naeem Sattar, Abdel Mohsen Tohamy, Ahmed O. Abbas, Julie Squires, David E. L. Cooke (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Late blight disease of potato and tomato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, results in serious losses to Egyptian and global potato and tomato production. To understand the structure and dynamics of the Egyptian population of P. infestans, 205 isolates were collected from potato and tomato plants during three growing seasons in 2010-2012. The characterization was achieved by mating-type assay, metalaxyl sensitivity assay, and virulence pattern. Additionally, genotyping of 85 Egyptian isolates and 15 reference UK isolates was performed using 12 highly informative microsatellite (SSR) markers David E. L. Cooke and five effector (RxLR) genes. Mating-type testing showed that 58% (118 of 205) of the isolates belonged to mating type A1, 35% (71 isolates) to mating type A2, and the rest 8% (16 isolates) were self-fertile. The phenotype of metalaxyl response was represented as 45% resistant, 43% sensitive, and 12% as intermediate. Structure analysis grouped the 85 identified genotypes into two main clonal lineages. The first clonal lineage comprised 21 isolates belonging to A2 mating type and 8 self-fertile isolates. This clonal lineage was identified as Blue_13 or EU_13_A2. The second main clonal lineage comprised 55 isolates and was identified as EU_23_A1. A single isolate with a novel SSR genotype that formed a distinct genetic grouping was also identified. The effector sequencing showed good correspondence with the virulence data and highlighted differences in the presence and absence of loci as well as nucleotide polymorphism that affect gene function. This study indicated a changing population of P. infestans in Egypt and discusses the findings in the context of late blight management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number468
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2022


  • Phytophthora infestans
  • Egypt
  • potato late blight disease
  • effector diversity
  • simple sequence repeat marker
  • genotype


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