Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms

Geoffrey M. Gadd, John A. Raven

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    53 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Eukaryotic microbes participate in many biogeochemical cycles, although quantifying their role is not easy, and the discussion below comes generally to only qualitative conclusions. Eukaryotes lack a number of the biogeochemically important functions that are carried out only by archaea (e.g., methanogenesis), bacteria (the anammox chemolithotrophic denitrification reaction), or archaea and bacteria (e.g., chemolithotrophy, diazotrophy, and dissimilatory reduction of sulfate). Microbial eukaryotes have one ancestral attribute, phagotrophy, which adds a novel link to food webs and thus modifies biogeochemical cycles, and have endosymbioses as well as ectosymbioses which can recruit metabolism from archaeans (methanogenesis) and bacteria (chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation, diazotrophy). The ability of eukaryotes to carry out oxidative phosphorylation and the related respiratory carbonmetabolism, and photosynthesis, as genetically integrated processes is an outcome of bacterial symbioses. The biogeochemical importance of fungi is significant in several key areas. These include organic and inorganic transformations, nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, and metal-fungal interactions. Although such transformations can occur in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, it is in the terrestrial environment where fungi probably have the greatest influence especially when considering soil, rock and mineral surfaces, and the plant root-soil interface. Of special significance are the mutualistic symbioses, lichens and mycorrhizas. Geochemical transformations that take place can influence plant productivity and the mobility and speciation of toxic elements, and are therefore of considerable socioeconomic relevance. Some fungal transformations have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e. g., in metal and radionuclide leaching, recovery and detoxification, and xenobiotic and organic pollutant degradation. They may also result in adverse effects when these processes are associated with the degradation of foodstuffs, natural products and building materials, including wood, stone and concrete.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)491-519
    Number of pages29
    JournalGeomicrobiology Journal
    Volume27
    Issue number6-7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • algae
    • biogeochemical cycles
    • calcium carbonate
    • carbon
    • fungi
    • geomycology
    • lichens
    • metalloids
    • metals
    • minerals
    • mycorrhizas
    • phagotrophs
    • phosphorus
    • protozoa
    • saprotrophs
    • silica
    • OCEAN IRON FERTILIZATION
    • TOXIC METAL MINERALS
    • ACID PROCESS STREAMS
    • WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI
    • SP STRAIN KR21-2
    • ASPERGILLUS-NIGER
    • ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
    • MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI
    • FILAMENTOUS FUNGI
    • OXALIC-ACID

    Cite this

    Gadd, Geoffrey M. ; Raven, John A. / Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms. In: Geomicrobiology Journal. 2010 ; Vol. 27, No. 6-7. pp. 491-519.
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    Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms. / Gadd, Geoffrey M.; Raven, John A.

    In: Geomicrobiology Journal, Vol. 27, No. 6-7, 2010, p. 491-519.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Geomicrobiology of Eukaryotic Microorganisms

    AU - Gadd, Geoffrey M.

    AU - Raven, John A.

    PY - 2010

    Y1 - 2010

    N2 - Eukaryotic microbes participate in many biogeochemical cycles, although quantifying their role is not easy, and the discussion below comes generally to only qualitative conclusions. Eukaryotes lack a number of the biogeochemically important functions that are carried out only by archaea (e.g., methanogenesis), bacteria (the anammox chemolithotrophic denitrification reaction), or archaea and bacteria (e.g., chemolithotrophy, diazotrophy, and dissimilatory reduction of sulfate). Microbial eukaryotes have one ancestral attribute, phagotrophy, which adds a novel link to food webs and thus modifies biogeochemical cycles, and have endosymbioses as well as ectosymbioses which can recruit metabolism from archaeans (methanogenesis) and bacteria (chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation, diazotrophy). The ability of eukaryotes to carry out oxidative phosphorylation and the related respiratory carbonmetabolism, and photosynthesis, as genetically integrated processes is an outcome of bacterial symbioses. The biogeochemical importance of fungi is significant in several key areas. These include organic and inorganic transformations, nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, and metal-fungal interactions. Although such transformations can occur in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, it is in the terrestrial environment where fungi probably have the greatest influence especially when considering soil, rock and mineral surfaces, and the plant root-soil interface. Of special significance are the mutualistic symbioses, lichens and mycorrhizas. Geochemical transformations that take place can influence plant productivity and the mobility and speciation of toxic elements, and are therefore of considerable socioeconomic relevance. Some fungal transformations have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e. g., in metal and radionuclide leaching, recovery and detoxification, and xenobiotic and organic pollutant degradation. They may also result in adverse effects when these processes are associated with the degradation of foodstuffs, natural products and building materials, including wood, stone and concrete.

    AB - Eukaryotic microbes participate in many biogeochemical cycles, although quantifying their role is not easy, and the discussion below comes generally to only qualitative conclusions. Eukaryotes lack a number of the biogeochemically important functions that are carried out only by archaea (e.g., methanogenesis), bacteria (the anammox chemolithotrophic denitrification reaction), or archaea and bacteria (e.g., chemolithotrophy, diazotrophy, and dissimilatory reduction of sulfate). Microbial eukaryotes have one ancestral attribute, phagotrophy, which adds a novel link to food webs and thus modifies biogeochemical cycles, and have endosymbioses as well as ectosymbioses which can recruit metabolism from archaeans (methanogenesis) and bacteria (chemolithotrophic sulfide oxidation, diazotrophy). The ability of eukaryotes to carry out oxidative phosphorylation and the related respiratory carbonmetabolism, and photosynthesis, as genetically integrated processes is an outcome of bacterial symbioses. The biogeochemical importance of fungi is significant in several key areas. These include organic and inorganic transformations, nutrient and element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, and metal-fungal interactions. Although such transformations can occur in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, it is in the terrestrial environment where fungi probably have the greatest influence especially when considering soil, rock and mineral surfaces, and the plant root-soil interface. Of special significance are the mutualistic symbioses, lichens and mycorrhizas. Geochemical transformations that take place can influence plant productivity and the mobility and speciation of toxic elements, and are therefore of considerable socioeconomic relevance. Some fungal transformations have beneficial applications in environmental biotechnology, e. g., in metal and radionuclide leaching, recovery and detoxification, and xenobiotic and organic pollutant degradation. They may also result in adverse effects when these processes are associated with the degradation of foodstuffs, natural products and building materials, including wood, stone and concrete.

    KW - algae

    KW - biogeochemical cycles

    KW - calcium carbonate

    KW - carbon

    KW - fungi

    KW - geomycology

    KW - lichens

    KW - metalloids

    KW - metals

    KW - minerals

    KW - mycorrhizas

    KW - phagotrophs

    KW - phosphorus

    KW - protozoa

    KW - saprotrophs

    KW - silica

    KW - OCEAN IRON FERTILIZATION

    KW - TOXIC METAL MINERALS

    KW - ACID PROCESS STREAMS

    KW - WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI

    KW - SP STRAIN KR21-2

    KW - ASPERGILLUS-NIGER

    KW - ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    KW - MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    KW - FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    KW - OXALIC-ACID

    U2 - 10.1080/01490451003703006

    DO - 10.1080/01490451003703006

    M3 - Article

    VL - 27

    SP - 491

    EP - 519

    JO - Geomicrobiology Journal

    JF - Geomicrobiology Journal

    SN - 0149-0451

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    ER -