Background: Interleukin-1-dependent increases in glycolysis promote allergic airways disease in mice and disruption of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activity is critical herein. Glutathione-S-transferase P (GSTP) has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis and regulates the oxidation state of proteins via S-glutathionylation. We addressed whether GSTP-dependent S-glutathionylation promotes allergic airways disease by promoting glycolytic reprogramming and whether it involves the disruption of PKM2.
Methods: We used house dust mite (HDM) or interleukin-1β in C57BL6/NJ WT or mice that lack GSTP. Airway basal cells were stimulated with interleukin-1β and the selective GSTP inhibitor, TLK199. GSTP and PKM2 were evaluated in sputum samples of asthmatics and healthy controls and incorporated analysis of the U-BIOPRED severe asthma cohort database.
Results: Ablation of Gstp decreased total S-glutathionylation and attenuated HDM-induced allergic airways disease and interleukin-1β-mediated inflammation. Gstp deletion or inhibition by TLK199 decreased the interleukin-1β-stimulated secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators and lactate by epithelial cells. 13C-glucose metabolomics showed decreased glycolysis flux at the pyruvate kinase step in response to TLK199. GSTP and PKM2 levels were increased in BAL of HDM-exposed mice as well as in sputum of asthmatics compared to controls. Sputum proteomics and transcriptomics revealed strong correlations between GSTP, PKM2, and the glycolysis pathway in asthma.
Conclusions: GSTP contributes to the pathogenesis of allergic airways disease in association with enhanced glycolysis and oxidative disruption of PKM2. Our findings also suggest a PKM2-GSTP-glycolysis signature in asthma that is associated with severe disease.
- Allergic airways disease
- House dust mite
- Thymic stromal lymphopoietin