Haemodynamics and flow modification stents for peripheral arterial disease: a review

Efstratios Kokkalis, Nicolas Aristokleous (Lead / Corresponding author), J. Graeme Houston

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14 Citations (Scopus)
198 Downloads (Pure)


Endovascular stents are widely used for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the development of in-stent restenosis and downstream PAD progression remain a challenge. Stent revascularisation of PAD causes arterial trauma and introduces abnormal haemodynamics, which initiate complicated biological processes detrimental to the arterial wall. The interaction between stent struts and arterial cells in contact, and the blood flow field created in a stented region, are highly affected by stent design. Spiral flow is known as a normal physiologic characteristic of arterial circulation and is
believed to prevent the development of flow disturbances. This secondary flow motion is lost in atheromatous disease and its re-introduction after endovascular treatment of PAD has been suggested as a method to induce stabilised and coherent haemodynamics. Stent designs able to generate spiral flow may support endothelial function and therefore increase patency rates. This review is focused on secondary flow phenomena in arteries and the development of flow modification stent technologies for the treatment of PAD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-476
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
Early online date14 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016


  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Endovascular
  • Restenosis
  • Wall shear stress
  • Spiral flow
  • Helical flow
  • Stent design
  • Flow modification
  • Helical stent
  • Spiral flow stent
  • Flow optimisation


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