Harmonization of epidemiology of acute kidney injury and acute kidney disease produces comparable findings across four geographic populations

Simon Sawhney, Samira Bell, Corri Black, Christian Fynbo Christiansen, Uffe Heide-Jørgensen, Simon Kok Jensen, Paul E. Ronksley, Zhi Tan, Marcello Tonelli, Heather Walker, Matthew T. James (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Abstract

There is substantial variability in the reported incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI). The extent to which this is attributable to differences in source populations versus methodological differences between studies is uncertain. We used 4 population-based datasets from Canada, Denmark, and the United Kingdom to measure the annual incidence and prognosis of AKI and acute kidney disease (AKD), using a homogenous analytical approach that incorporated KDIGO creatinine-based definitions and subsets of the AKI/AKD criteria. The cohorts included 7 million adults ≥18 years of age between 2011 and 2014; median age 59-68 years, 51.9-54.4% female sex. Age- and sex-standardised incidence rates for AKI or AKD were similar between regions and years; range 134.3-162.4 events/10,000 person years. Among patients who met either KDIGO 48 hour or 7-day AKI creatinine criteria, the standardised 1-year mortality was similar (30.4-38.5%) across the cohorts, which was comparable to standardised 1-year mortality among patients who met AKI/AKD criteria using a baseline creatinine within 8-90 days prior (32.0-37.4%). Standardised 1-year mortality was lower (21.0-25.5% across cohorts) among patients with AKI/AKD ascertained using a baseline creatinine >90 days prior. These findings illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of AKI and AKD based on KDIGO criteria are consistent across 3 high-income countries when capture of laboratory tests is complete, creatinine-based definitions are implemented consistently within but not beyond a 90-day period, and adjustment is made for population age and sex. These approaches should be consistently applied to improve the generalizability and comparability of AKI research and clinical reporting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1271-1281
Number of pages11
JournalKidney International
Volume101
Issue number6
Early online date7 Apr 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • epidemiology

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