Recently, highly sensitive and selective biosensors have become necessary for improving public health and well-being. To fulfill this need, high-performance biosensing systems based on various nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and hybrid nanomaterials, have been developed. Numerous nanomaterials have shown excellent physical properties, including plasmonic, magnetic, catalytic, mechanical and fluorescence properties and high electrical conductivities, and these unique and beneficial properties have contributed to the fabrication of high-performance biosensors with various applications, including in optical, electrical, and electrochemical detection platforms. In addition, these properties could be transformed to signals for the detection of biomolecules. In this review, various types of nanomaterial-based biosensors were introduced, and they showed high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition, the potential applications of these sensors on the biosensing of several types of biomolecules were also discussed. These nanomaterials-based biosensing systems have provided a significant improvement on healthcare including rapid monitoring and early detection of infectious disease for public health.
- carbon nanomaterial-based biosensors
- electrical biosensors
- nanoparticle-based biosensing systems
- optical biosensing platforms