Homeostatic control of stearoyl desaturase expression via patched-like receptor PTR-23 ensures the survival of C. elegans during heat stress

Siddharth R. Venkatesh, Ritika Siddiqui, Anjali Sandhu, Malvika Ramaniind, Isabel R. Houston, Jennifer L. Watts, Varsha Singh (Lead / Corresponding author)

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Abstract

Organismal responses to temperature fluctuations include an evolutionarily conserved cytosolic chaperone machinery as well as adaptive alterations in lipid constituents of cellular membranes. Using C. elegans as a model system, we asked whether adaptable lipid homeostasis is required for survival during physiologically relevant heat stress. By systematic analyses of lipid composition in worms during and before heat stress, we found that unsaturated fatty acids are reduced in heat-stressed animals. This is accompanied by the transcriptional downregulation of fatty acid desaturase enzymes encoded by fat-1, fat-3, fat-4, fat-5, fat-6, and fat-7 genes. Conversely, overexpression of the Δ9 desaturase FAT-7, responsible for the synthesis of PUFA precursor oleic acid, and supplementation of oleic acid causes accelerated death of worms during heat stress. Interestingly, heat stress causes permeability defects in the worm’s cuticle. We show that fat-7 expression is reduced in the permeability defective collagen (PDC) mutant, dpy-10, known to have enhanced heat stress resistance (HSR). Further, we show that the HSR of dpy-10 animals is dependent on the upregulation of PTR-23, a patched-like receptor in the epidermis, and that PTR-23 downregulates the expression of fat-7. Consequently, abrogation of ptr-23 in wild type animals affects its survival during heat stress. This study provides evidence for the negative regulation of fatty acid desaturase expression in the soma of C. elegans via the non-canonical role of a patched receptor signaling component. Taken together, this constitutes a skin-gut axis for the regulation of lipid desaturation to promote the survival of worms during heat stress.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1011067
Number of pages22
JournalPLoS Genetics
Volume19
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Thermal stresses
  • Fatty acids
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Oleic acid
  • Heat shock response
  • Lipids
  • Collagens
  • RNA interference

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