How Cyber Users Experience and Respond to Racism: Evidence from an Online Survey

Andrew Jakubowicz, Kevin Dunn, Gail Mason, Yin Paradies, Ana-Maria Bliuc, Nasya Bahfen, Andre Oboler, Rosalie Atie, Karen Connelly

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter details the main findings of a survey conducted in December 2013 as a part of the Australian online Cyber Racism and Community Resilience (CRaCR) Project. Over 2,000 Internet users across Australia were surveyed regarding their encounters with cyber racism, the impact of these encounters and their responses to them. This group included targets, witnesses and authors of cyber racism. These survey data indicate that a significant number of Internet users regularly encounter racism online, primarily on Facebook, online news commentary and YouTube; both as targets and witnesses. This research also reveals that a small but prolific group are publishing intentional, exclusionary and hurtful racist content online, which is then being seen by a much wider audience of Internet users.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCyber Racism and Community Resilience
Subtitle of host publicationStrategies for Combating Online Race Hate
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9783319643885
ISBN (Print)9783319643878
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2017

Publication series

NamePalgrave Hate Studies
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan


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