How Plants Grow Up

Sarah McKim (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A plant's lateral structures, such as leaves, branches and flowers, literally hinge on the shoot axis, making its integrity and growth fundamental to plant form. In all plants, subapical proliferation within the shoot tip displaces cells downward to extrude the cylindrical stem. Following the transition to flowering, many plants show extensive axial elongation associated with increased subapical proliferation and expansion. However, the cereal grasses also elongate their stems, called culms, due to activity within detached intercalary meristems which displaces cells upward, elevating the grain-bearing inflorescence. Variation in culm length within species is especially relevant to cereal crops, as demonstrated by the high-yielding semi-dwarfed cereals of the Green Revolution. Although previously understudied, recent renewed interest the regulation of subapical and intercalary growth suggests that control of cell division planes, boundary formation and temporal dynamics of differentiation, are likely critical mechanisms coordinating axial growth and development in plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-277
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Integrative Plant Biology
Volume61
Issue number3
Early online date30 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Mar 2019

Fingerprint

Bearings (structural)
Hinges
Plant Structures
Inflorescence
Crops
stems
Meristem
Elongation
plant architecture
Growth
Poaceae
grain crops
Growth and Development
Cells
meristems
branches
Cell Division
cell division
growth and development
inflorescences

Keywords

  • Cell Differentiation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Plant Development/genetics
  • Plant Stems/growth & development
  • Plant Vascular Bundle/cytology

Cite this

McKim, Sarah. / How Plants Grow Up. In: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology . 2019 ; Vol. 61, No. 3. pp. 257-277.
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How Plants Grow Up. / McKim, Sarah (Lead / Corresponding author).

In: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology , Vol. 61, No. 3, 18.03.2019, p. 257-277.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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AB - A plant's lateral structures, such as leaves, branches and flowers, literally hinge on the shoot axis, making its integrity and growth fundamental to plant form. In all plants, subapical proliferation within the shoot tip displaces cells downward to extrude the cylindrical stem. Following the transition to flowering, many plants show extensive axial elongation associated with increased subapical proliferation and expansion. However, the cereal grasses also elongate their stems, called culms, due to activity within detached intercalary meristems which displaces cells upward, elevating the grain-bearing inflorescence. Variation in culm length within species is especially relevant to cereal crops, as demonstrated by the high-yielding semi-dwarfed cereals of the Green Revolution. Although previously understudied, recent renewed interest the regulation of subapical and intercalary growth suggests that control of cell division planes, boundary formation and temporal dynamics of differentiation, are likely critical mechanisms coordinating axial growth and development in plants.

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