The major human Mu-class glutathione S-transferases (GST) have been purified to allow comparisons of their catalytic, physicochemical and immunochemical properties. GST isoenzymes, purified from hepatic, testicular and skeletal muscle tissue were found to comprise three distinct subunits (M1, M2 and M3) which may combine to form both homodimeric and heterodimeric proteins. Two distinct subunits, M1a and M1b, which represent allelic charge variants have been isolated but no polymorphic forms encoded at the GST M2 and M3 loci have been observed. Three GST isoenzymes (M1a-1a, M1a-1b and M1b-1b) have been purified from a single liver specimen. In addition, GST M1a-2, M1b-2, M2-2 and M2-3 have been isolated from muscle, whilst the M3-3 homodimer has been purified from human testis. The homodimeric enzymes GST M1a-1a, M1b-1b, M2-2 and M3-3 have pI values of 6.1, 5.5, 5.3 and 5.0, whilst SDS-PAGE indicated that M1a, M1b, M2 and M3 have molecular masses of 26.7, 26.6, 26.0 and 26.3 kDa, respectively. The M1, M2 and M3 subunits isolated from either liver, skeletal muscle or testis, are catalytically distinct. Both M1-type subunits (M1a and M1b) possess a high activity for trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one, whereas, the skeletal muscle subunit M2 has a high activity towards 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. By contrast, the testicular GST subunit M3 has no detectable activity towards either of these substrates. However, all three Mu-class subunits are active towards the compounds 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxydecinal, possible endogenous substrates which are produced by lipid peroxidation. The human Mu-class subunits can be distinguished immunochemically; antisera raised against the testicular GST M3-3 showed no reactivity towards either the M1 or M2 subunits. The M3 subunit has a blocked N-terminus but automated amino-acid sequencing of a CNBr-derived peptide allowed 14 residues of the M3 subunit to be identified. These data indicated that testicular GST M3-3 is likely to correspond to the brain/testis Mu-class GST cDNA described by Campbell et al. (Campbell E., Takahashi Y., Abramovitz M., Peretz M., & Listowsky I. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 9188-9193).
- Amino Acid Sequence
- Glutathione Transferase/chemistry
- Molecular Sequence Data