Objectives: Treatment options for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTO) are limited, with low historical success rates from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We report procedural outcomes of CTO PCI from 7 centres with dedicated CTO operators trained in hybrid approaches comprising antegrade/retrograde wire escalation (AWE/RWE) and dissection re-entry (ADR/RDR) techniques.
Methods: Clinical and procedural data were collected from consecutive unselected patients with CTO between 2012 and 2014. Lesion complexity was graded by the Multicentre CTO Registry of Japan ( J-CTO) score, with ≥2 defined as complex. Success was defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 flow with <30% residual stenosis, subclassified as at first attempt or overall. In hospital complications and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs, death/myocardial infarction/unplanned target vessel revascularisation) were recorded.
Results: 1156 patients were included. Despite high complexity (mean J-CTO score 2.5±1.3), success rates were 79% (first attempt) and 90% (overall) with 30-day MACE of 1.6%. AWE was highly effective in less complex lesions ( J-CTO ≤1 94% success vs 79% in J-CTO score ≥2). ADR/RDR was used more commonly in complex lesions ( J-CTO≤1 15% vs J-CTO ≥2 56%). Need for multiple approaches during each attempt increased with lesion complexity (17% J-CTO ≤1 vs 48% J-CTO ≥2). Lesion modification (‘investment procedures’) at the end of unsuccessful first attempts increased the chance of subsequent success (96% vs 71%).
Conclusions: Hybrid-trained operators can achieve overall success rates of 90% in real world practice with acceptable MACE. Use of dissection re-entry and investment procedures maintains high success rates in complex lesions. The hybrid approach represents a significant advance in CTO treatment.