Rationale: Airway colonization by Potentially Pathogenic Microorganisms (PPM) in bronchiectasis is associated with worse clinical outcomes. The electronic nose is a non-invasive technology capable of distinguishing volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We aim to explore if an electronic nose can reliably discriminate airway bacterial colonization in patients with bronchiectasis.
Methods: Seventy-three clinically stable bronchiectasis patients were included. PPM presence was determined using sputum culture. Exhaled breath was collected in Tedlar bags and VOC breath-prints were detected by the electronic nose Cyranose 320®. Raw data was reduced to three factors with principal component analysis. Univariate ANOVA followed by post-hoc least significant difference test was performed with these factors. Patients were then classified using linear canonical discriminant analysis. Cross-validation accuracy values were defined by the percentage of correctly classified patients.
Results: Forty-one (56%) patients were colonized with PPM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 27, 66%) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 7, 17%) were the most common PPM. VOC breath-prints from colonized and non-colonized patients were significantly different (accuracy of 72%, AUROC 0.75, p < 0.001). VOC breath-prints from Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonized patients were significantly different from those of patients colonized with other PPM (accuracy of 89%, AUROC 0.97, p < 0.001) and non-colonized patients (accuracy 73%, AUROC 0.83, p = 0.007).
Conclusions: An electronic nose can accurately identify VOC breath-prints of clinically stable bronchiectasis patients with airway bacterial colonization, especially in those with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
- Journal article
- Electronic nose
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Volatile organic compounds
- Electronic nose