Identification of novel polymorphisms in the glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly

Laura Forsyth, Robert Hume, Allan Howatson, Anthony Busuttil, Ann Burchell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    25 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Sudden and unexpected infant deaths can be unexplained [sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)] or explained (non-SIDS) but risk factors including lower birthweight are similar in both groups. Mutations in the glucokinase (GK) gene result in Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY 2) and are associated with lower birthweight. Low hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC1) expression occurs in both low birthweight and SIDS infants. We investigated whether polymorphisms are prevalent in the GK and G6PC1 genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in samples from 126 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly (78 SIDS, 48 non-SIDS) and from 70 healthy, living infants. G6PC1 promoter polymorphism significance was investigated by transfection of reporter gene constructs into a H4IIE cell line. Heterozygous GK polymorphisms were identified in 17.9% of SIDS and 20.8% of non-SIDS infants: two rare silent polymorphisms, Y215Y and S263S, in the coding region; a third rare polymorphism, –45G>A, in the hepatic promoter and the most prevalent polymorphism, c.484–29G>C, in a non-coding region upstream from the intron 4–exon 5 junction. A novel heterozygous polymorphism –77G>A in the G6PC1 promoter in 6.3% of non-SIDS and 2.9% of control infants decreased basal G6PC1 promoter activity (p<0.001). We describe three novel polymorphisms in the GK gene, S263S, –45G>A, and a common (14.3%) intronic substitution, c.484–29G>C, in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. We identified the first G6PC1 promoter polymorphism, which lowers expression, potentially increasing risk of hypoglycaemia and hence risk of sudden and unexpected death.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)610-618
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Molecular Medicine
    Volume83
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2005

    Fingerprint

    Glucokinase
    Glucose-6-Phosphatase
    Sudden Infant Death
    Genes
    Mutation
    Liver
    Sudden Death
    Reporter Genes
    Hypoglycemia
    Introns
    Transfection
    High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
    Cell Line
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Infant Death

    Keywords

    • Glucose-6-phosphatase
    • Glucokinas
    • Sudden infant death syndrome
    • Polymorphism
    • Genetics

    Cite this

    Forsyth, Laura ; Hume, Robert ; Howatson, Allan ; Busuttil, Anthony ; Burchell, Ann. / Identification of novel polymorphisms in the glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. In: Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2005 ; Vol. 83, No. 8. pp. 610-618.
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    abstract = "Sudden and unexpected infant deaths can be unexplained [sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)] or explained (non-SIDS) but risk factors including lower birthweight are similar in both groups. Mutations in the glucokinase (GK) gene result in Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY 2) and are associated with lower birthweight. Low hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC1) expression occurs in both low birthweight and SIDS infants. We investigated whether polymorphisms are prevalent in the GK and G6PC1 genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in samples from 126 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly (78 SIDS, 48 non-SIDS) and from 70 healthy, living infants. G6PC1 promoter polymorphism significance was investigated by transfection of reporter gene constructs into a H4IIE cell line. Heterozygous GK polymorphisms were identified in 17.9{\%} of SIDS and 20.8{\%} of non-SIDS infants: two rare silent polymorphisms, Y215Y and S263S, in the coding region; a third rare polymorphism, –45G>A, in the hepatic promoter and the most prevalent polymorphism, c.484–29G>C, in a non-coding region upstream from the intron 4–exon 5 junction. A novel heterozygous polymorphism –77G>A in the G6PC1 promoter in 6.3{\%} of non-SIDS and 2.9{\%} of control infants decreased basal G6PC1 promoter activity (p<0.001). We describe three novel polymorphisms in the GK gene, S263S, –45G>A, and a common (14.3{\%}) intronic substitution, c.484–29G>C, in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. We identified the first G6PC1 promoter polymorphism, which lowers expression, potentially increasing risk of hypoglycaemia and hence risk of sudden and unexpected death.",
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    Identification of novel polymorphisms in the glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. / Forsyth, Laura; Hume, Robert; Howatson, Allan; Busuttil, Anthony; Burchell, Ann.

    In: Journal of Molecular Medicine, Vol. 83, No. 8, 08.2005, p. 610-618.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Identification of novel polymorphisms in the glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly

    AU - Forsyth, Laura

    AU - Hume, Robert

    AU - Howatson, Allan

    AU - Busuttil, Anthony

    AU - Burchell, Ann

    N1 - dc.publisher: Springer Verlag The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

    PY - 2005/8

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    AB - Sudden and unexpected infant deaths can be unexplained [sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)] or explained (non-SIDS) but risk factors including lower birthweight are similar in both groups. Mutations in the glucokinase (GK) gene result in Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young type 2 (MODY 2) and are associated with lower birthweight. Low hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC1) expression occurs in both low birthweight and SIDS infants. We investigated whether polymorphisms are prevalent in the GK and G6PC1 genes in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) in samples from 126 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly (78 SIDS, 48 non-SIDS) and from 70 healthy, living infants. G6PC1 promoter polymorphism significance was investigated by transfection of reporter gene constructs into a H4IIE cell line. Heterozygous GK polymorphisms were identified in 17.9% of SIDS and 20.8% of non-SIDS infants: two rare silent polymorphisms, Y215Y and S263S, in the coding region; a third rare polymorphism, –45G>A, in the hepatic promoter and the most prevalent polymorphism, c.484–29G>C, in a non-coding region upstream from the intron 4–exon 5 junction. A novel heterozygous polymorphism –77G>A in the G6PC1 promoter in 6.3% of non-SIDS and 2.9% of control infants decreased basal G6PC1 promoter activity (p<0.001). We describe three novel polymorphisms in the GK gene, S263S, –45G>A, and a common (14.3%) intronic substitution, c.484–29G>C, in infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. We identified the first G6PC1 promoter polymorphism, which lowers expression, potentially increasing risk of hypoglycaemia and hence risk of sudden and unexpected death.

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    KW - Glucokinas

    KW - Sudden infant death syndrome

    KW - Polymorphism

    KW - Genetics

    U2 - 10.1007/s00109-005-0666-0

    DO - 10.1007/s00109-005-0666-0

    M3 - Article

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