Identifying counterfeit brand logos: On the importance of the first and last letters of a logotype

Abhishek Pathak (Lead / Corresponding author), Carlos Velasco, Gemma A. Calvert

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)
    129 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Purpose: Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo? This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo. Design/methodology/approach: Seven popular brand logos were altered by transposing and substituting the first and last letters of the logotypes. Consumers then classified the logos as counterfeit (vs original) across two experiments. Findings: Participants were faster and more accurate in identifying a counterfeit logo when the first letter (vs last letter) of a logotype was manipulated, thus revealing last letter manipulations of a brand’s logotype to be more deceptive. Research limitations/implications: This paper comments only on the manipulation of logotypes but not of logo symbols. Similarly, findings may not be generalizable across languages which are read from right to left. Practical implications: Counterfeit trade is already a multibillion dollar industry. Understanding the key perceptual differentiators between a counterfeit (vs original) logo can be insightful for both consumers and firms alike. Originality/value: Research available on objective measures of similarities (vs dissimilarities) between counterfeit (vs original) brand logos is limited. This paper contributes by examining the ability of consumers to discriminate between counterfeit (vs original) logos at different levels of visual similarity.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalEuropean Journal of Marketing
    Early online date19 Jun 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Jun 2019

    Fingerprint

    Logos
    Counterfeit
    Manipulation
    Industry
    Dissimilarity
    Language
    Emerging markets
    Symbol
    Design methodology
    Experiment
    Counterfeiting

    Keywords

    • Counterfeit trade
    • Fake brand logos
    • Look-alike products

    Cite this

    @article{f967dcdf2e0c43d08b8158e4817e9211,
    title = "Identifying counterfeit brand logos: On the importance of the first and last letters of a logotype",
    abstract = "Purpose: Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo? This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo. Design/methodology/approach: Seven popular brand logos were altered by transposing and substituting the first and last letters of the logotypes. Consumers then classified the logos as counterfeit (vs original) across two experiments. Findings: Participants were faster and more accurate in identifying a counterfeit logo when the first letter (vs last letter) of a logotype was manipulated, thus revealing last letter manipulations of a brand’s logotype to be more deceptive. Research limitations/implications: This paper comments only on the manipulation of logotypes but not of logo symbols. Similarly, findings may not be generalizable across languages which are read from right to left. Practical implications: Counterfeit trade is already a multibillion dollar industry. Understanding the key perceptual differentiators between a counterfeit (vs original) logo can be insightful for both consumers and firms alike. Originality/value: Research available on objective measures of similarities (vs dissimilarities) between counterfeit (vs original) brand logos is limited. This paper contributes by examining the ability of consumers to discriminate between counterfeit (vs original) logos at different levels of visual similarity.",
    keywords = "Counterfeit trade, Fake brand logos, Look-alike products",
    author = "Abhishek Pathak and Carlos Velasco and Calvert, {Gemma A.}",
    year = "2019",
    month = "6",
    day = "19",
    doi = "10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0586",
    language = "English",
    journal = "European Journal of Marketing",
    issn = "0309-0566",
    publisher = "Emerald",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Identifying counterfeit brand logos

    T2 - On the importance of the first and last letters of a logotype

    AU - Pathak, Abhishek

    AU - Velasco, Carlos

    AU - Calvert, Gemma A.

    PY - 2019/6/19

    Y1 - 2019/6/19

    N2 - Purpose: Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo? This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo. Design/methodology/approach: Seven popular brand logos were altered by transposing and substituting the first and last letters of the logotypes. Consumers then classified the logos as counterfeit (vs original) across two experiments. Findings: Participants were faster and more accurate in identifying a counterfeit logo when the first letter (vs last letter) of a logotype was manipulated, thus revealing last letter manipulations of a brand’s logotype to be more deceptive. Research limitations/implications: This paper comments only on the manipulation of logotypes but not of logo symbols. Similarly, findings may not be generalizable across languages which are read from right to left. Practical implications: Counterfeit trade is already a multibillion dollar industry. Understanding the key perceptual differentiators between a counterfeit (vs original) logo can be insightful for both consumers and firms alike. Originality/value: Research available on objective measures of similarities (vs dissimilarities) between counterfeit (vs original) brand logos is limited. This paper contributes by examining the ability of consumers to discriminate between counterfeit (vs original) logos at different levels of visual similarity.

    AB - Purpose: Counterfeiting is a menace in the emerging markets and many successful brands are falling prey to it. Counterfeit brands not only deceive consumers but also fuel a demand for lower priced replicas, both of which can devalue the bona-fide brand. But can consumers accurately identify a counterfeit logo? This paper aims to explore this question and examines the accuracy and speed with which a consumer can identify a counterfeit (vs original) logo. Design/methodology/approach: Seven popular brand logos were altered by transposing and substituting the first and last letters of the logotypes. Consumers then classified the logos as counterfeit (vs original) across two experiments. Findings: Participants were faster and more accurate in identifying a counterfeit logo when the first letter (vs last letter) of a logotype was manipulated, thus revealing last letter manipulations of a brand’s logotype to be more deceptive. Research limitations/implications: This paper comments only on the manipulation of logotypes but not of logo symbols. Similarly, findings may not be generalizable across languages which are read from right to left. Practical implications: Counterfeit trade is already a multibillion dollar industry. Understanding the key perceptual differentiators between a counterfeit (vs original) logo can be insightful for both consumers and firms alike. Originality/value: Research available on objective measures of similarities (vs dissimilarities) between counterfeit (vs original) brand logos is limited. This paper contributes by examining the ability of consumers to discriminate between counterfeit (vs original) logos at different levels of visual similarity.

    KW - Counterfeit trade

    KW - Fake brand logos

    KW - Look-alike products

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85066876408&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0586

    DO - 10.1108/EJM-09-2017-0586

    M3 - Article

    JO - European Journal of Marketing

    JF - European Journal of Marketing

    SN - 0309-0566

    ER -