Immersion in water during labor and birth: the need for evaluation

Rona McCandlish, Mary Renfrew

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    24 Citations (Scopus)


    Despite widespread and increasing use of immersion in water during labor, birth, or both in many different countries, no reliable information is available about its advantages, hazards, and resource implications. We describe the development of immersion in water during labor and birth, the current use of this form of care in the United Kingdom, the research that has been conducted to date, and possible strategies for future research. Three approaches to research are suggested: a survey of existing practice, a randomized controlled trial, and a confidential register of serious adverse events.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)79-85
    Number of pages7
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 1993


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