Eighteen cases of Cushing's syndrome caused by ectopic production of peptide hormones were investigated by histological and immunocytochemical methods and the findings correlated with clinical and biochemical observations. Immunocytochemistry showed immunoreactive adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or peptides derived from the ACTH precursor (pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC], or both, in a total of 10 cases: five of these also contained immunoreactive-alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone, indicating more extensive translational processing of POMC than normally occurs in healthy corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary; in two further cases peptides capable of stimulating ACTH release from the anterior pituitary were present. In the remaining six cases immunocytochemistry failed to show the presence of ACTH, other POMC derived peptides, or peptides with ACTH releasing properties. These findings correlate well with the histological and clinical observations, in that the six tumours had been clinically overt, caused rapid death, and histologically seemed to be highly malignant. In contrast, the 12 other tumours were occult to radiological examination, patients had a much improved survival rate, and histologically the tumours seemed to be less aggressive. All but one of the tumours in this series showed a degree of neuroendocrine differentiation, indicated by the presence of neuron specific enolase. These results suggest that one feature of highly malignant tumours, which cause an ectopic endocrine syndrome, is a high secretion of peptide hormones, leaving amounts that are too small to be shown by immunocytochemistry.