Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

Julie K. K. Vishram (Lead / Corresponding author), Anders Borglykke, Anne H. Andreasen, Jørgen Jeppesen, Hans Ibsen, Torben Jørgensen, Luigi Palmieri, Simona Giampaoli, Chiara Donfrancesco, Frank Kee, Giuseppe Mancia, Giancarlo Cesana, Kari Kuulasmaa, Veikko Salomaa, Susana Sans, Jean Ferrieres, Jean Dallongeville, Stefan Söderberg, Dominique Arveiler, Aline WagnerHugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Wojciech Drygas, Michael H. Olsen, on behalf of the MORGAM Project

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    Abstract

    Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere107294
    Number of pages12
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Volume9
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Sep 2014

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    metabolic syndrome
    gender
    cardiovascular diseases
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    stroke
    Coronary Disease
    Education
    Cholesterol
    Stroke
    Medical problems
    diabetes
    Age Groups
    Therapeutics

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    Vishram, J. K. K., Borglykke, A., Andreasen, A. H., Jeppesen, J., Ibsen, H., Jørgensen, T., ... on behalf of the MORGAM Project (2014). Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project. PLoS ONE, 9(9), [e107294]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107294
    Vishram, Julie K. K. ; Borglykke, Anders ; Andreasen, Anne H. ; Jeppesen, Jørgen ; Ibsen, Hans ; Jørgensen, Torben ; Palmieri, Luigi ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Kee, Frank ; Mancia, Giuseppe ; Cesana, Giancarlo ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Sans, Susana ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Dallongeville, Jean ; Söderberg, Stefan ; Arveiler, Dominique ; Wagner, Aline ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Drygas, Wojciech ; Olsen, Michael H. ; on behalf of the MORGAM Project. / Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans : the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project. In: PLoS ONE. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 9.
    @article{6848de26a6ec4f0eb3c7db22b591b949,
    title = "Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project",
    abstract = "Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7{\%}/2.1{\%} of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4{\%}/7.6{\%} to 35.4{\%}/37.6{\%} for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3{\%}/10.5{\%} to 11.5{\%}/21.8{\%}). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.",
    author = "Vishram, {Julie K. K.} and Anders Borglykke and Andreasen, {Anne H.} and J{\o}rgen Jeppesen and Hans Ibsen and Torben J{\o}rgensen and Luigi Palmieri and Simona Giampaoli and Chiara Donfrancesco and Frank Kee and Giuseppe Mancia and Giancarlo Cesana and Kari Kuulasmaa and Veikko Salomaa and Susana Sans and Jean Ferrieres and Jean Dallongeville and Stefan S{\"o}derberg and Dominique Arveiler and Aline Wagner and Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe and Wojciech Drygas and Olsen, {Michael H.} and {on behalf of the MORGAM Project}",
    year = "2014",
    month = "9",
    day = "22",
    doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0107294",
    language = "English",
    volume = "9",
    journal = "PLoS ONE",
    issn = "1932-6203",
    publisher = "Public Library of Science",
    number = "9",

    }

    Vishram, JKK, Borglykke, A, Andreasen, AH, Jeppesen, J, Ibsen, H, Jørgensen, T, Palmieri, L, Giampaoli, S, Donfrancesco, C, Kee, F, Mancia, G, Cesana, G, Kuulasmaa, K, Salomaa, V, Sans, S, Ferrieres, J, Dallongeville, J, Söderberg, S, Arveiler, D, Wagner, A, Tunstall-Pedoe, H, Drygas, W, Olsen, MH & on behalf of the MORGAM Project 2014, 'Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project', PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, e107294. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107294

    Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans : the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project. / Vishram, Julie K. K. (Lead / Corresponding author); Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H.; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Ibsen, Hans; Jørgensen, Torben; Palmieri, Luigi; Giampaoli, Simona; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kee, Frank; Mancia, Giuseppe; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Salomaa, Veikko; Sans, Susana; Ferrieres, Jean; Dallongeville, Jean; Söderberg, Stefan; Arveiler, Dominique; Wagner, Aline; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Drygas, Wojciech; Olsen, Michael H.; on behalf of the MORGAM Project.

    In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 9, No. 9, e107294, 22.09.2014.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans

    T2 - the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

    AU - Vishram, Julie K. K.

    AU - Borglykke, Anders

    AU - Andreasen, Anne H.

    AU - Jeppesen, Jørgen

    AU - Ibsen, Hans

    AU - Jørgensen, Torben

    AU - Palmieri, Luigi

    AU - Giampaoli, Simona

    AU - Donfrancesco, Chiara

    AU - Kee, Frank

    AU - Mancia, Giuseppe

    AU - Cesana, Giancarlo

    AU - Kuulasmaa, Kari

    AU - Salomaa, Veikko

    AU - Sans, Susana

    AU - Ferrieres, Jean

    AU - Dallongeville, Jean

    AU - Söderberg, Stefan

    AU - Arveiler, Dominique

    AU - Wagner, Aline

    AU - Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh

    AU - Drygas, Wojciech

    AU - Olsen, Michael H.

    AU - on behalf of the MORGAM Project

    PY - 2014/9/22

    Y1 - 2014/9/22

    N2 - Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.

    AB - Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.

    U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0107294

    DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0107294

    M3 - Article

    C2 - 25244618

    VL - 9

    JO - PLoS ONE

    JF - PLoS ONE

    SN - 1932-6203

    IS - 9

    M1 - e107294

    ER -