Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

Julie K. K. Vishram (Lead / Corresponding author), Anders Borglykke, Anne H. Andreasen, Jørgen Jeppesen, Hans Ibsen, Torben Jørgensen, Luigi Palmieri, Simona Giampaoli, Chiara Donfrancesco, Frank Kee, Giuseppe Mancia, Giancarlo Cesana, Kari Kuulasmaa, Veikko Salomaa, Susana Sans, Jean Ferrieres, Jean Dallongeville, Stefan Söderberg, Dominique Arveiler, Aline WagnerHugh Tunstall-Pedoe, Wojciech Drygas, Michael H. Olsen, on behalf of the MORGAM Project

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    Abstract

    Objective To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982–1997, 69094 men and women aged 19–78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19–39 years to 60–78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere107294
    Number of pages12
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Volume9
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 22 Sep 2014

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    Vishram, J. K. K., Borglykke, A., Andreasen, A. H., Jeppesen, J., Ibsen, H., Jørgensen, T., Palmieri, L., Giampaoli, S., Donfrancesco, C., Kee, F., Mancia, G., Cesana, G., Kuulasmaa, K., Salomaa, V., Sans, S., Ferrieres, J., Dallongeville, J., Söderberg, S., Arveiler, D., ... on behalf of the MORGAM Project (2014). Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans: the MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project. PLoS ONE, 9(9), [e107294]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107294