Beta-tricalcium phosphate reinforced high density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) was prepared to simulate bone composition and to study its capacity to act as bone tissue. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of the composite samples with different volume fractions of TCP (20, 30 and 40 vol %) was examined in vitro using two osteoblast cell lines G-292 and Saos-2, and also a type of fibroblast cell isolated from bone tissue, namely human bone fibroblast (HBF) by proliferation, and cell adhesion assays. Cell-material interaction with the surface of the composite samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of beta-TCP/HDPE on the behavior of osteoblast and fibroblast cells was compared with those of composite and negative control samples; polyethylene (PE) and tissue culture polystyrene (TPS), respectively. In general, the results showed that the composite samples containing beta-TCP as reinforcement supported a higher rate of proliferation by various bone cells after 3, 7, and 14 days of incubation compared to the composite control sample. Furthermore, more osteoblast cells were attached to the surface of the composite samples when compared to the composite control samples after the above incubation periods (p < 0.05), while in the case of HBF an equal or even higher number of cells adhered to PE was observed. The number of adhered osteoblast cells was almost equal and in some days even higher than the number of adhered cells on negative control sample, while in the case of fibroblast this difference was significantly higher than TPS (p < 0.05). Adhered cells presented a normal morphology by SEM and many of the cells were observed to be undergoing cell division. These findings indicate that beta-TCP/HDPE composites are biocompatible, nontoxic, and act to stimulate proliferation and adhesion of the cells, whether osteoblast or fibroblast.