In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, changed the infertility practice worldwide since its introduction in 1978 and it has continued to evolve. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) refers to all treatments or procedures that include the in vitro handling of both human oocytes and sperm, or embryos, for the purpose of establishing a pregnancy. Today ART is available globally, and the current practice is largely different from that which was used during the early days of its inception. Although advances in laboratory technology and clinical practice have allowed IVF to evolve, it still remains invasive, expensive and is associated with risks. This article reviews the current indications for assisted reproduction and the preparatory steps before starting treatment. It also summarizes the treatment cycle including its main clinical and laboratory aspects, and the complications associated with treatment.
- Assisted reproduction
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome