Influence of periodontal disease on risk of dementia: a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis

Rizwan Nadim, Amena Dilmohamed, Siyang Yuan, Changhao Wu, Aishat T. Bakre, Martin Partridge, Jindong Ni, John Copeland, Kaarin J. Anstey, Ruoling Chen (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)
592 Downloads (Pure)


Periodontal disease (PD) is common and increases cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether PD is associated with increased risk of dementia. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the influence of PD on dementia. We projected the number of dementia cases to be saved by reducing PD prevalence in the world. We searched cohort and case–control studies reporting the association of PD with all dementia (or any specific type of dementia) through PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, CINHAL, and CNKI until 7th November 2018. Five cohorts and seven case–control studies were identified for review. We pooled eligible data to calculate relative risk (RR) of dementia in relation to PD and computed the number of dementia cases saved through reducing PD prevalence. Of 12 studies, six were undertaken in Asia, four in Europe and two in America. Eleven studies showed a positive association between PD and the risk of dementia, of which 10 were significant, and one reported a non-significant inverse association. Overall their quality was good. Pooled RR of dementia in relation to PD from all high quality studies was 1.38 (95%CI 1.01–1.90); in the five cohorts was 1.18 (1.06–1.31) and in the two case–control studies 2.25 (1.48–3.42). A 50% reduction in the current prevalence of 20% of PD in the population could save 850,000 (630,000–1,420,000) patients with dementia in the world. PD could increase the risk of incident dementia. Preventing and treating PD could contribute to controlling the global epidemic of dementia.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)821-833
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number9
Early online date12 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • Oral health
  • Periodontitis
  • Periodontal disease
  • Dementia
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Meta-analysis
  • Alzheimer’s disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of periodontal disease on risk of dementia: a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this