Insulin inhibits the expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes. The signaling pathway that mediates these events requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, whereas transfection studies have suggested an involvement of Akt (protein kinase 13) and FKHR, a transcription factor regulated by Akt. We now demonstrate that insulin repression of endogenous IGFBP-1 gene transcription was blocked by rapamycin or by amino acid starvation. Rapamycin inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the subsequent activation of p70/p85 S6 protein kinase-1 (S6K1) by insulin, whereas amino acid depletion prevented insulin induction of these signaling molecules. Importantly, we demonstrate that insulin regulation of the thymine-rich insulin response element of the IGFBP-1 promoter was also inhibited by rapamycin. However, sustained activation of S6K1 did not repress this promoter. In addition, rapamycin did not affect insulin regulation of G6Pase expression or Akt activation. WeproposethattheseobservationsindicatethatanmTOR-dependent, but S6K-independent mechanism regulates the suppression of IGFBP-1 (but not G6Pase) gene expression by insulin. Therefore, although the insulin-responsive sequence of the G6Pase gene promoter is related to that of the IGFBP-1 promoter, the signaling pathways that mediate suppression of these genes are distinct.