Intelligence and the Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Early Modern Europe: the Spanish Monarchy in the Reign of Charles II (1665-1700)

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    Abstract

    This article seeks to explore the means whereby the Spanish Monarchy under the last Habsburg, Charles II (1665-1700), contributed to its own survival in the era of Louis XIV by exploring its acquisition and use of intelligence. There was nothing particularly distinctive about Spain's intelligence machinery. Nor was it always effective. Nevertheless, Spain's extensive diplomatic and imperial network facilitated the acquisition of a great deal of information which on occasion was clearly of great importance - for example, in preventing the destruction of Charles II's fleet in the summer of 1693 by that of Louis XIV. In sum, intelligence contributed to the remarkable resilience of the Spanish Monarchy in an age of supposed Spanish decline.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)493-519
    Number of pages27
    JournalIntelligence and National Security
    Volume21
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Keywords

    • Military studies
    • Military intelligence
    • Strategic studies
    • Military strategy

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