Intelligent Liver Function Testing (iLFT): A trial of automated diagnosis and staging of liver disease in Primary Care

John F. Dillon, Michael H. Miller, Emma M. Robinson (Lead / Corresponding author), Adrian Hapca, Mohsen Rezaeihemami, Christopher Weatherburn, Paul G. McIntyre, Bill Bartlett, Peter T. Donnan, Kathleen A. Boyd, Ellie Dow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)
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Background & Aims: Liver function tests (LFTs) are frequently requested blood tests which may indicate liver disease. LFTs are commonly abnormal, the causes of which can be complex and are frequently under investigated. This can lead to missed opportunities to diagnose and treat liver disease at an early stage. We developed an automated investigation algorithm, intelligent liver function testing (iLFT), with the aim of increasing the early diagnosis of liver disease in a cost-effective manner.

Methods: We developed an automated system that further investigated abnormal LFTs on initial testing samples to generate a probable diagnosis and management plan. We integrated this automated investigation algorithm into the laboratory management system, based on minimal diagnostic criteria, liver fibrosis estimation, and reflex testing for causes of liver disease. This algorithm then generated a diagnosis and/or management plan. A stepped-wedged trial design was utilised to compare LFT outcomes in general practices in the 6 months before and after introduction of the iLFT system. Diagnostic outcomes were collated and compared.

Results: Of eligible patients with abnormal LFTs, 490 were recruited to the control group and 64 were recruited to the intervention group. The primary diagnostic outcome was based on the general practitioner diagnosis, which agreed with the iLFT diagnosis in 67% of cases. In the iLFT group, the diagnosis of liver disease was increased by 43%. Additionally, there were significant increases in the rates of GP visits after diagnosis and the number of referrals to secondary care in the iLFT group. iLFT was cost-effective with a low initial incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £284 per correct diagnosis, and a saving to the NHS of £3,216 per patient lifetime.

Conclusions: iLFT increases liver disease diagnoses, improves quality of care, and is highly cost-effective. This can be achieved with minor changes to working practices and exploitation of functionality existing within modern laboratory diagnostics systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-706
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Hepatology
Issue number4
Early online date19 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


  • Abnormal LFTs
  • Automated testing
  • Blood tests
  • Intelligent liver function testing
  • Liver disease
  • Non-invasive diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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