Intelligent or smart cities and buildings: a critical exposition and a way forward

Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini, Husam Al Waer, Ali Ghaffarianhoseini, Derek Clements-Croome, Umberto Berardi, Kaamran Raahemifar, John Tookey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


In the last decade, there has been an undoubtedly rising interest in the field of intelligent and smart built environments from design and construction to management, operational and governance perspectives. These recent endeavors, observed at both academic and professional levels, can be classified into city, neighborhood and building scales. In this context, understanding what we really mean by the word intelligent and smart is crucially important. This technical note attempts to clarify and further explore how intelligence differs from smartness in this context. Having intelligence as the main umbrella embracing other interrelated smart subsets is one way of thinking as supported by previous debates, while there are also other lines of thinking with more preference on the smartness as the core concept.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-129
Number of pages8
JournalIntelligent Buildings International
Issue number2
Early online date11 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Intelligent buildings
  • smart buildings
  • intelligent cities
  • smart cities
  • built environment


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