This paper studies the combined effects of earthquake-triggered landslides and ground shaking on foundation-structure systems founded near slope crests. Plane-strain nonlinear finite element dynamic analyses are performed. The soil constitutive model is calibrated against published data to simulate the (post-peak) softening behavior of soil during a seismic event and under the action of gravitational forces. The plastic shear zones and the yield accelerations obtained from our dynamic analyses are shown to be consistent with the slip surfaces and the seismic coefficients obtained by classical pseudostatic limiting equilibrium and limit analysis methods. The foundation and frame columns and beams are modeled as flexural beam elements, while the possibility of sliding and detachment (separation) between the foundation and the underlying soil is considered through the use of special frictional gap elements. The effects of foundation type (isolated footings versus a rigid raft) on the position of the sliding surface, on the foundation total and differential displacements, and on the distress of the foundation slab and superstructure columns, are explored parametrically. It is shown that a frame structure founded on a properly designed raft could survive the combined effects of slope failure and ground shaking, even if the latter is the result of a strong base excitation amplified by the soil layer and slope topography.
Kourkoulis, R., Anastasopoulos, I., Gelagoti, F., & Gazetas, G. (2010). Interaction of foundation-structure systems with seismically precarious slopes: Numerical analysis with strain softening constitutive model. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 30(12), 1430-1445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2010.05.001