The initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes is regulated in a minimum of at least two ways. First, several proteins, including origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6 protein, and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex, need to be assembled on chromatin before initiation. Second, cyclin-dependent kinases regulate DNA replication in both a positive and a negative way by inducing the initiation of DNA replication at G(1)/S transition and preventing further rounds of origin firing within the same cell cycle. Here we characterize a link between the two levels. Immunoprecipitation of Xenopus origin recognition complex with anti-XOrc1 or anti-XOrc2 antibodies specifically co-immunoprecipitates a histone H1 kinase activity. The kinase activity is sensitive to several inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases including 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), olomoucine, and p21(Cip1). This kinase activity also copurifies with ORC over several fractionation steps and was identified as a complex of the Cdc2 catalytic subunit and cyclin A1. Neither Cdk2 nor cyclin E could be detected in ORC immunoprecipitations. Reciprocal immunoprecipitations with anti-Xenopus Cdc2 or anti-Xenopus cyclin A1 antibodies specifically co-precipitate XOrc1 and XOrc2. Our results indicate that Xenopus ORC and Cdc2 x cyclin A1 physically interact and demonstrate a physical link between an active cyclin-dependent kinase and proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication.
Romanowski, P., Marr, J., Madine, M. A., Rowles, A., Blow, J. J., Gautier, J., & Laskey, R. A. (2000). Interaction of Xenopus Cdc2 x cyclin A1 with the origin recognition complex. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(6), 4239-4243. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.275.6.4239