Interactive 3D Digital Models for Anatomy and Medical Education

Caroline Erolin (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)
2044 Downloads (Pure)


This chapter explores the creation and use of interactive, three-dimensional (3D), digital models for anatomy and medical education. Firstly, it looks back over the history and development of virtual 3D anatomy resources before outlining some of the current means of their creation; including photogrammetry, CT and surface scanning, and digital modelling, outlining advantages and disadvantages for each. Various means of distribution are explored, including; virtual learning environments, websites, interactive PDF’s, virtual and augmented reality, bespoke applications, and 3D printing, with a particular focus on the level of interactivity each method offers. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the use of such models for education is discussed. Questions addressed include; How can such models best be used to enhance student learning? How can they be used in the classroom? How can they be used for selfdirected study? As well as exploring if they could one day replace human specimens, and how they complement the rise of online and e-learning.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBiomedical Visualisation
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 2
EditorsPaul M. Rea
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9783030142278
ISBN (Print)9783030142261
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • E-learning
  • Interactive models
  • Medical art and visualisation
  • Medical education
  • Three-dimensional (3D) anatomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Interactive 3D Digital Models for Anatomy and Medical Education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this