Intra-individual and inter-individual variation in breath alcohol pharmacokinetics: Variation over three visits

David W. Sadler (Lead / Corresponding author), Stuart Lennox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Eleven male and 7 female student subjects underwent serial Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) measurements after being given alcohol as 13% white wine (5.7 ml/kg for males and 4.7 ml/kg for females) in a fasting state on three separate occasions. BrAC versus time curves were constructed for each subject and the values of peak BrAC (Cmax), theoretical BrAC extrapolated at zero time (Co), time taken to reach peak (Tmax) and rate of elimination (ß) from breath were recorded directly from the curves. Average Intra-individual variation for each individual between the 3 visits (for males and females, respectively) was 5.6% and 8% for Co, 12% and 13% for Cmax>, 42% and 37% for Tmax and 11% and 13% for ß. Inter-individual variation (for males and females) was 7.5% and 13% for Co, 16% and 15% for Cmax, 43% and 46% for Tmax and 21% and 15% for ß. Average elimination rates in males (5.3 μg/100 ml breath/h, range 4-7.7) and females (5.6 μg/100 ml breath/h, range 4-7) were not significantly different. Widmark factors calculated by various established mathematical methods were 0.71-0.81 in males and 0.59-0.68 in females, higher than the originally quoted mean experimental levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-98
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Early online date18 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2015


  • Breath alcohol concentration
  • Elimination
  • Inter-individual
  • Intra-individual
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Variation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law


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