The rate of glucose transport into cells is of fundamental importance in whole body homeostasis and adaptation to metabolic stresses, and this review examines the signalling mechanisms controlling this process. The events that mediate the action of insulin on glucose transport, which is by far the best characterized paradigm for glucose transport regulation, are discussed. There are several excellent reviews on various aspects of this subject, which are referred to while highlighting very recent developments in the field, including the recently described CAP pathway, and emerging mechanisms for feed-back regulation of insulin signalling. The manner in which hormonal signalling is modulated by stimuli such as oxidative and osmotic stress is then discussed. The second major physiological event where glucose transport regulation is critical is the contraction of skeletal muscle, due to the large metabolic demands of this activity. The mechanism of this regulation is distinct from that initiated by insulin, and recent developments will be examined that have begun to clarify how contraction stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle, including the roles performed by AMP-activated protein kinase and nitric oxide synthase.