Investigating Macrophages Plasticity Following Tumour–Immune Interactions During Oncolytic Therapies

Raluca Eftimie (Lead / Corresponding author), Georgiana Eftimie

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11 Citations (Scopus)
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Over the last few years, oncolytic virus therapy has been recognised as a promising approach in cancer treatment, due to the potential of these viruses to induce systemic anti-tumour immunity and selectively killing tumour cells. However, the effectiveness of these viruses depends significantly on their interactions with the host immune responses, both innate (e.g., macrophages, which accumulate in high numbers inside solid tumours) and adaptive (e.g., CD8+ T cells). In this article, we consider a mathematical approach to investigate the possible outcomes of the complex interactions between two extreme types of macrophages (M1 and M2 cells), effector CD8+ T cells and an oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), on the growth/elimination of B16F10 melanoma. We discuss, in terms of VSV, CD8+ and macrophages levels, two different types of immune responses which could ensure tumour control and eventual elimination. We show that both innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses, as well as the oncolytic virus, could be very important in delaying tumour relapse and eventually eliminating the tumour. Overall this study supports the use mathematical modelling to increase our understanding of the complex immune interaction following oncolytic virotherapies. However, the complexity of the model combined with a lack of sufficient data for model parametrisation has an impact on the possibility of making quantitative predictions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-359
Number of pages39
JournalActa Biotheoretica
Issue number4
Early online date13 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


  • Mathematical model
  • Oncolytic viruses
  • M1 macrophages
  • M2 macrophages
  • CD8+ T cells
  • CD8(+) T cells


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