Background: The role of Keller's resection arthroplasty in the management of adult hallux valgus with hallux rigidus is debatable. There are no studies addressing this particular problem. Methods: This study is a retrospective review of 32 patients (49 feet), conducted by an independent assessor. Subjective and objective criteria were used to assess the results of surgery. There were 30 women and 2 men with an average age at surgery of 62.5. years. Results: The results of surgery in terms of relief of pain, cosmesis and use of regular footwear were satisfactory. Excellent and good subjective results were obtained in 39% and 37% of cases respectively. Radiological analysis revealed decrease in the intermetatarsal and first metatarsophalangeal angle in a significant number of cases. Final results assessed by Vallier's modification of Bonney and MacNab criteria, revealed excellent to good results in 87% of feet. A significant number of complications were noted but there was no association between the occurrence of complications and the final result or the subjective functional grade. There was no association between the amount of resection of proximal phalanx and occurrence of metatarsalgia or the final outcome. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Keller's arthroplasty has a role in patients with adult hallux valgus associated with degenerative changes in the first metatarsophalangeal joint.