Key Practical Elements for Age Estimation in the Living

Sue Black, Jason Payne-James, Anil Aggrawal

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAge Estimation in the Living
Subtitle of host publicationthe practitioner's guide
EditorsSue Black, Jason Payne-James, Anil Aggrawal
Place of PublicationChichester
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9780470669785
ISBN (Print)9780470519677
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2010


  • Clinician or forensic practitioners - providing authorities with a potential age range for the individual
  • Four fundamental pillars for age estimation - the greater number of pillars in final evaluation
  • Four Pillars of age estimation
  • Guiding principles of balance of probability, logic, robustness of methodology - and transparency of procedures core to degree of reliability
  • Important elements of any age estimation procedure - ensuring that it complies with, and fulfils, all local and/or national legal, jurisdictional, professional and ethical requirements
  • Key practical elements for age estimation - in the living
  • Outcome, approximating to a chronological age - realistic evaluation with a comfortable age range, being the best for both justice and human rights
  • Pillar 1, Social and Psychological Evaluation and Pillar 2, External Estimation of Age
  • Pillar 3, Skeletal Estimation of Age and Pillar 4, Dental Estimation of Age

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