Objectives: We had for aim to learn about medical students' knowledge and perspectives on antibiotic prescribing and bacterial resistance. Methods: Penultimate and final year students at a French medical school were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in summer 2012. Results: The response rate was 20% (60/297). Penultimate and final year students gave similar answers. Students felt more confident in diagnosing an infection, and less confident in choosing the correct dose and interval of antibiotic administration. Seventy-nine percent of students wanted more training on antibiotic treatments. Sixty-nine percent of students knew that antibiotic prescriptions were inappropriate or unnecessary in 21-60% of the cases, and 95% believed that these prescriptions were unethical. Only 27% knew that more than 80% of antibiotic prescriptions were made in community practice. Students believed that the most important causes of resistance were that too many prescriptions were made and broad-spectrum antibiotic use; 27% believed poor hand hygiene was "not at all important". Ninety-four percent believed resistance was a national problem, and 69% mentioned it as a problem in their hospital. Sixty-three percent thought that the antibiotics they would prescribe would contribute to resistance, and 96% thought resistance would be a greater problem in the future. Twenty-two percent knew MRSA bacteremia rates had decreased over the past decade in France. Conclusions: Medical students are aware that antibiotic resistance is a current and growing problem. They would like more training on antibiotic selection.