Lancefield Whole Blood Killing Assay to Evaluate Vaccine Efficacy

Mark Reglinski (Lead / Corresponding author)

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
129 Downloads (Pure)


While the Lancefield whole blood killing assay is named after the renowned streptococcal researcher Rebecca Lancefield, the protocol was first described by Todd in 1927 (Br J Exp Pathol 8:1-5, 1927). Initially, the assay was used to identify novel Group A Streptococcal (GAS) serotypes through the supplementation of non-immune human blood (often from infants) with type-specific antisera prepared in rabbits (Lancefield, J Exp Med 106:525-544, 1957; Maxted, Br J Exp Pathol 37:415-422, 1956) and to demonstrate the impressive longevity of type-specific immunity in patients following invasive GAS infection (Lancefield, J Exp Med 110:271-292, 1959). The modern assay is routinely used to screen defined GAS mutants (Wessels, Bronze, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:12238-12242, 1994; Zinkernagel et al., Cell Host Microbe 4:170-178, 2008) or transposon libraries (Le Breton et al., Infect Immun 81:862-875, 2013) for enhanced susceptibility to opsonophagocytic killing or to screen vaccine antisera (Salehi et al., mSphere 3:e00617-e00618, 2018) or other serological preparations (Reglinski et al., Sci Rep 5:15825, 2015) for anti-streptococcal activity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGroup A Streptococcus
Subtitle of host publicationMethods and Protocols
EditorsThomas Proft, Jacelyn M. S. Loh
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherHumana Press
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781071604670
ISBN (Print)9781071604663 (hbk), 9781071604694 (pbk)
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Antiserum
  • Bacterial killing
  • Lancefield assay
  • Multiplication factor
  • Mutant screening
  • Opsonophagocytosis
  • Whole blood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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