To overview the gene content of the important pathogen Phytophthora infestans, large-scale cDNA and genomic sequencing was performed. A set of 75,757 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from P infestans was obtained from 20 cDNA libraries representing a broad range of growth conditions, stress responses, and developmental stages. These included libraries from R infestans-potato and -tomato interactions, from which 963 pathogen ESTs were identified. To complement the ESTs, onefold coverage of the P infestans genome was obtained and regions of coding potential identified. A unigene set of 18,256 sequences was derived from the EST and genomic data and characterized for potential functions, stage-specific patterns of expression, and codon bias. Cluster analysis of ESTs revealed major differences between the expressed gene content of mycelial and spore-related stages, and affinities between some growth conditions. Comparisons with databases of fungal pathogenicity genes revealed conserved elements of pathogenicity, such as class III pectate lyases, despite the considerable evolutionary distance between oomycetes and fungi. Thirty-seven genes encoding components of flagella also were identified. Several genes not anticipated to occur in oomycetes were detected, including chitin synthases, phosphagen kinases, and a bacterial-type FtsZ cell-division protein. The sequence data described are available in a searchable public database.