Objective: Myocardial fibrosis has been associated with poorer outcomes in tetralogy of Fallot, however only a handful of studies have assessed its significance in the current era. Our aim was to quantify the amount of late gadolinium enhancement in both the LV and RV in a contemporary cohort of adults with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot, and assess the relationship with adverse clinical outcomes. Design: Single centre cohort study. Setting: National tertiary referral center. Patients: One hundred fourteen patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot with median age 29.5 years (range 17.5-64.2). Prospective follow-up for mean 2.4 years (SD 1.29). Interventions: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed, and late gadolinium enhancement mass was estimated for the LV using the 5-SD remote myocardium method, and for the RV using a segmental scoring system. Cohort characterization was determined through the use of a computerized database. Outcome measures: Survival analysis from time of scan to first adverse event, defined as an episode of atrial arrhythmia, sustained ventricular arrhythmia, hospitalization with heart failure, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion. Results: Eleven patients experienced an adverse outcome in the follow-up period, although there were no deaths. LV late gadolinium enhancement was associated with adverse outcomes in a univariate model (P =.027). However, when adjusted for age at scan the significant variables included NYHA class (P =.006), peak oxygen uptake (P =.028), number of prior sternotomies (P =.044), and higher indexed RV and LV end diastolic volumes (P =.002 and P <.001), but not RV or LV late gadolinium enhancement. Conclusions: Formal quantification of late gadolinium enhancement is not currently as helpful in ascertaining prognosis compared to other, more easily assessed parameters in a contemporary cohort of tetralogy of Fallot survivors, however assessment particularly of the LV holds promise for the future.
- cardiac MRI
- tetralogy of Fallot