Laying the foundations for a world wide argument web

Iyad Rahwan, Fouad Zablith, Chris Reed

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    156 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper lays theoretical and software foundations for a World Wide Argument Web (WWAW): a large-scale Web of inter-connected arguments posted by individuals to express their opinions in a structured manner. First, we extend the recently proposed Argument Interchange Format (AIF) to express arguments with a structure based on Walton's theory of argumentation schemes. Then, we describe an implementation of this ontology using the RDF Schema Semantic Web-based ontology language, and demonstrate how our ontology enables the representation of networks of arguments on the Semantic Web. Finally, we present a pilot Semantic Web-based system, ArgDF, through which users can create arguments using different argumentation schemes and can query arguments using a Semantic Web query language. Manipulation of existing arguments is also handled in ArgDF: users can attack or support parts of existing arguments, or use existing parts of an argument in the creation of new arguments. ArgDF also enables users to create new argumentation schemes. As such, ArgDF is an open platform not only for representing arguments, but also for building interlinked and dynamic argument networks on the Semantic Web. This initial public-domain tool is intended to seed a variety of future applications for authoring, linking, navigating, searching, and evaluating arguments on the Web.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)897-921
    Number of pages25
    JournalArtificial Intelligence
    Issue number10-15
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2007


    • Argument schemes
    • Argumentation
    • Tools
    • E-democracy
    • Argument interchange format
    • Semantic web


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