Aim: To evaluate the salivary levels of myeloid-related markers in relation to periodontal disease and their potential screening capability, as well as the effects of periodontal treatment on these markers in periodontitis patients.
Materials and methods: Participants with a healthy periodontium (n = 60) and with gingivitis (n = 63) and periodontitis (n = 72) were recruited. Periodontitis patients received non-surgical treatment and were re-examined after 3 and 6 months. Unstimulated saliva was collected at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after therapy for the periodontitis patients. Levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), interleukin-34 (IL-34), S100A8/A9, S100A12, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were analysed by immunoassays.
Results: CSF-1, S100A8/A9, S100A12, IL-1β, MMP-8, and HGF were significantly elevated in saliva from periodontitis and gingivitis patients in comparison to healthy individuals, whereas IL-34 was significantly lower in periodontitis compared to both healthy individuals and gingivitis patients. IL-34 increased significantly 3 months after treatment, while IL-1β and MMP-8 decreased 1 month after therapy. Additionally, periodontitis patients clustered in high and low levels of S100A8/A9, whereby those with high levels had more bleeding, deeper pockets, and higher S100A12.
Conclusions: Salivary levels of myeloid-related markers are altered in periodontitis and are partially modulated by periodontal treatment. Measuring S100A8/A9 in saliva may identify distinct groups of periodontitis patients.
- myeloid cells
- periodontal disease