LIPAD (LRRK2/Luebeck International Parkinson's Disease) Study Protocol: Deep Phenotyping of an International Genetic Cohort

Tatiana Usnich, Eva-Juliane Vollstedt, Nathalie Schell, Volha Skrahina, Xenia Bogdanovic, Hanaa Gaber, Toni M. Förster, Andreas Heuer, Natalia Koleva-Alazeh, Ilona Csoti, Ayse Nazli Basak, Sibel Ertan, Gencer Genc, Peter Bauer, Katja Lohmann, Anne Grünewald, Emma L. Schymanski, Joanne Trinh, Susen Schaake, Daniela BergDoreen Gruber, Stuart H. Isaacson, Andrea A. Kühn, Brit Mollenhauer, David J. Pedrosa, Kathrin Reetz, Esther M. Sammler, Enza Maria Valente, Franco Valzania, Jens Volkmann, Simone Zittel, Norbert Brüggemann, Meike Kasten, Arndt Rolfs, Christine Klein (Lead / Corresponding author),

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
58 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Pathogenic variants in the Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common known monogenic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2-linked PD is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD and inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity that differ across ethnicities and geographic regions.

Objective: To systematically assess clinical signs and symptoms including non-motor features, comorbidities, medication and environmental factors in PD patients, unaffected LRRK2 pathogenic variant carriers, and controls. A further focus is to enable the investigation of modifiers of penetrance and expressivity of LRRK2 pathogenic variants using genetic and environmental data.

Methods: Eligible participants are invited for a personal or online examination which comprises completion of a detailed eCRF and collection of blood samples (to obtain DNA, RNA, serum/plasma, immune cells), urine as well as household dust. We plan to enroll 1,000 participants internationally: 300 with LRRK2-linked PD, 200 with LRRK2 pathogenic variants but without PD, 100 PD patients with pathogenic variants in the GBA or PRKN genes, 200 patients with idiopathic PD, and 200 healthy persons without pathogenic variants.

Results: The eCRF consists of an investigator-rated (1 h) and a self-rated (1.5 h) part. The first part includes the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating, Hoehn &Yahr, and Schwab & England Scales, the Brief Smell Identification Test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The self-rating part consists of a PD risk factor, food frequency, autonomic dysfunction, and quality of life questionnaires, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, and the Epworth Sleepiness as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. The first 15 centers have been initiated and the first 150 participants enrolled (as of March 25th, 2021).

Conclusions: LIPAD is a large-scale international scientific effort focusing on deep phenotyping of LRRK2-linked PD and healthy pathogenic variant carriers, including the comparison with additional relatively frequent genetic forms of PD, with a future perspective to identify genetic and environmental modifiers of penetrance and expressivity.

Clinical Trial Registration:, NCT04214509.

Original languageEnglish
Article number710572
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2021


  • GBA
  • LRRK2
  • Parkinson's disease
  • clinical study
  • genetic cohort

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'LIPAD (LRRK2/Luebeck International Parkinson's Disease) Study Protocol: Deep Phenotyping of an International Genetic Cohort'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this