Measuring Sustainability Efficiency Using a Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

George Halkos (Lead / Corresponding author), Nickolaos Tzeremes, Stavros Kourtzidis

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    29 Citations (Scopus)


    In this article, we apply an additive two-stage data envelopment analysis estimator on a panel of 20 countries with advanced economies for the time period 1990–2011 in order to create a composite sustainability efficiency index. We use a window-based approach in order to study the countries over the years. The sustainability efficiency index is decomposed into production efficiency and eco-efficiency indicators. The results reveal inequalities among the examined countries between the two stages. The eco-efficiency stage is characterized by large inequalities among countries and significantly lower efficiency scores than the overall sustainability efficiency and the production efficiency. Finally, it is reported that a country’s high production efficiency level does not ensure a high eco-efficiency performance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1159–1175
    Number of pages17
    JournalJournal of Industrial Ecology
    Issue number5
    Early online date11 Sept 2015
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


    • additive two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA)
    • advanced economies
    • environment and development
    • environmental metrics
    • industrial ecology
    • sustainability efficiency index


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