In this article, we apply an additive two-stage data envelopment analysis estimator on a panel of 20 countries with advanced economies for the time period 1990–2011 in order to create a composite sustainability efﬁciency index. We use a window-based approach in order to study the countries over the years. The sustainability efﬁciency index is decomposed into production efﬁciency and eco-efﬁciency indicators. The results reveal inequalities among the examined countries between the two stages. The eco-efﬁciency stage is characterized by large inequalities among countries and signiﬁcantly lower efﬁciency scores than the overall sustainability efﬁciency and the production efﬁciency. Finally, it is reported that a country’s high production efﬁciency level does not ensure a high eco-efﬁciency performance.
- additive two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA)
- advanced economies
- environment and development
- environmental metrics
- industrial ecology
- sustainability efﬁciency index