Mechanisms of HIV-1 inhibition by the lipid mediator N-arachidonoyldopamine

Rocío Sancho, Laureano de la Vega, Antonio Macho, Giovanni Appendino, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Eduardo Muñoz (Lead / Corresponding author)

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    22 Citations (Scopus)


    Several linear fatty acid dopamides (N-acyldopamines) have been identified recently in the brain. Among them, N-arachidonoyldopamine (NADA) is an endogenous lipid mediator sharing endocannabinoid and endovanilloid biological activities. We have reported previously that NADA exerts some of its biological activities through inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway and, because this transcription factor plays a key role in HIV-1-long terminal repeat (LTR) trans activation, we have evaluated the anti-HIV-1 activity of NADA. In this study, we show that NADA inhibits vesicular stomatitis virus-pseudotyped HIV-1 infection in the human leukemia T cell line Jurkat, in primary T cells, and in the human astrocytic cell line U373-MG. Other endocannabinoids such as anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and noladin ether did not show inhibitory activity in the HIV-1 replication assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of NADA was independent of known cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor activation. In addition, NADA did not affect reverse transcription and integration steps of the viral cycle, and its inhibitory effect was additive with that of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor azidothymidine. NADA inhibited both TNF-alpha and HIV-1 trans activator protein-induced HIV-1-LTR activation. We also show that NADA counteracts the TNF-alpha-mediated trans activation capacity of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit without affecting its physical association to the HIV-1-LTR promoter. Moreover, NADA inhibited the p65 transcriptional activity by specifically targeting the phosphorylation of this NF-kappaB subunit at Ser(536). These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the biological activities of NADA, and highlight the potential of lipid mediators for the management of AIDS.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3990-3999
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Immunology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2005


    • Anti-HIV agents
    • Arachidonic acids
    • Cannabinoid receptor modulators
    • Cell line, Tumor
    • Dopamine
    • HIV-1
    • Humans
    • Jurkat cells
    • Lipids
    • Phosphorylation
    • Reverse transcription
    • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    • Virus integration
    • Virus replication


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